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Authors
  • Lawrence Abu Hamdan
  • Babak Afrassiabi
    • Babak Afrassiabi is an artist who works both in Iran and the Netherlands. Since 2004, he has collaborated with Nasrin Tabatabai on various joint projects and the publication of the bilingual magazine Pages (Farsi and English). Their work seeks to articulate the undecidable space between art and its historical conditions, including the recurring question of the place of the archive in defining the juncture between politics, history, and the practice of art. The artists’ work has been presented internationally in various solo and group exhibitions and they have been tutors at the Jan Van Eyck Academie, Maastricht (2008–13), and Erg, école supérieure des arts, Brussels (2015–).
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      published contributions
  • Malin Ah-King
  • Memo Akten
    • . He is currently a PhD candidate at Goldsmiths, University of London, where he is researching artificial intelligence, machine learning, and expressive human-ma
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      published contributions
  • Jamie Allen
  • S. Ayesha Hameed
    • Dr. S. Ayesha Hameed is a Lecturer in Visual Cultures and the Joint Programme Leader in Fine Art and History of Art Research Fellow in Forensic Architecture at Goldsmiths, London. She received her PhD in Social and Political Thought at York University, Canada in 2008
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      published contributions
  • Sammy Baloji
  • Subhankar Banerjee
  • On Barak
    • On Barak is a social and cultural historian of science and technology in non-Western settings. He has been a senior lecturer in the Department of Middle Eastern and African History at Tel Aviv University since 2012. Prior to this, he was a member of the Princeton Society of Fellows. In 2009, Barak received a joint PhD in History and Middle Eastern Studies from New York University. His most recent book is On Time: Technology and Temporality in Modern Egypt (University of California Press, 2013), and his current publication project, Coalonialism: Energy and Empire before the Age of Oil, is funded by a European Union Marie Curie Award and an Israel Science Foundation Grant.
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      published contributions
  • Anil Bawa-Cavia
    • Anil Bawa-Cavia is a computer scientist with a background in machine learning. He runs STDIO, a speculative software studio. His practice engages with algorithms, protocols, encodings, and other software artifacts and his doctoral research at the Center for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA) at University College London was on complex networks in urbanism. He is a founding member of Call & Response, a sonic arts collective and gallery space in London, and a member of the New Centre for Research & Practice.
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      published contributions
  • Etienne Benson
  • Josh Berson
  • Jeremy Bolen
  • Paul Boshears
  • Benjamin Bratton
    • for Media, Architecture and Design, Moscow. Bratton is also Professor of Digital Design at the Eur
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      published contributions
  • Axel Braun
    • Axel Braun studied photography at the Folkwang University of the Arts, Essen, and fine arts at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts de Paris. His artistic research deals with controversial infrastructure projects, tautology as an attempt to understand reality, and failed utopias in art and architecture. Currently, he is pursuing the long-term project Towards an Understanding of Anthropocene Landscapes. Recently exhibited works include Some Kind of Opposition (2016) at Galeria Centralis, Budapest, and Dragonflies drift downstream on a river (2015) at Kunstmuseum Bochum.
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      published contributions
  • Keith Breckenridge
  • François Bucher
    • s, focusing on ethical and aesthetic problems of cinema and television, and more recently on the image as an interdimensional field. His work has been exhibited at
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      published contributions
  • Lino Camprubí
  • Zachary Caple
  • Ele Carpenter
    • Dr. Ele Carpenter is a senior lecturer in curating at Goldsmiths, London. Her curatorial practice responds to interdisciplinary socio-political contexts such as the nuclear economy and the relationship between craft and code.
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      published contributions
  • Andrew Chubb
    • Andrew Chubb is a PhD candidate at the University of Western Australia conducting research on the relationship between Chinese public opinion and government policy in the South China Sea. His articles have appeared in the Journal of Contemporary China, Pacific Affairs, East Asia Forum, and Information, Communication & Society. His blog, South Sea Conversations (southseaconversations.wordpress.com), provides translations and analysis of Chinese discourse on the South and East China Sea issues.
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      published contributions
  • Louis Chude-Sokei
    • Louis Chude-Sokei is a writer and scholar currently teaching in the English Department at the University of Washington, Seattle. His academic interests range from West African, Caribbean, and American literary and cultural studies to a particular focus on sound, technology, and performance. His literary and public work focuses on immigration and black-on-black cultural contacts, conflicts, and exchanges. Chude-Sokei is the author of the award-winning book The Last “Darky”: Bert Williams, Black-on-Black Minstrelsy, and the African Diaspora (2006) and The Sound of Culture: Diaspora and Black Technopoetics (2016).
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      published contributions
  • Amy Cimini
  • Claire Colebrook
    • Claire Colebrook is a professor of English at Penn State University. Her areas of specialization are contemporary literature, visual culture, and theory and cultural studies. She has written articles on poetry, literary theory, queer theory, and contemporary culture. Colebrook is the co-editor of the series Critical Climate Change, published by Open Humanities Press, and a member of the advisory board of the Institute for Critical Climate Change. She recently completed two books on extinction for Open Humanities Press, Death of the PostHuman and Sex after Life (both 2014), and with Tom Cohen and J. Hillis Miller co-authored Twilight of the Anthropocene Idols (2016).
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      published contributions
  • Flavio D'Abramo
  • Ana Dana Beroš
    • chitect and curator focused on creating uncertain, fragile environments that catalyze social chan
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      published contributions
  • Pietro Daniel Omodeo
  • Rana Dasgupta
  • Filip De Boeck
    • Filip De Boeck is actively involved in teaching, promoting, coordinating and supervising research in and on Africa at the Institute for Anthropological research in Africa at the U
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      published contributions
  • Seth Denizen
    • Seth Denizen is a researcher and design practitioner trained in landscape architecture and evolutionary biology. Since completing research on the sexual behavior and evolutionary ecology of small Trinidadian fish, his work has focused on the aesthetics of scientific representation, madness, and public parks, the design of t
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      published contributions
  • Rohini Devasher
  • Jonathan Donges
    • Jonathan Donges is a postdoctoral researcher who holds a joint position at the Stockholm Resilience Centre (as Stordalen Scholar) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. He studies planetary boundaries and social dynamics in the Earth system from a complex dynamical system perspective. At Potsdam, he is Co-head of the flagship COPAN (Coevolutionary Pathways) project (www.pik-potsdam.de/copan). His published research includes work on complex network theory, dynamical systems theory, and time series analysis, with a focus on their application to our understanding of past and present climate variability and its interactions with humankind on planet Earth.
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  • Design Earth
    • ollaborative architectural practice led by El Hadi Jazairy
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      published contributions
  • Keller Easterling
  • Anna Echterhölter
  • David Edgerton
    • David Edgerton is Hans Rausing Professor of the History of Science and Technology and a professor of modern British history at King’s College London. After teaching at the University of Manchester, he became the founding director of the Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at Imperial College London (1993–2003), and moved along with the centre to King’s College London in August 2013. He is the author of many works, including The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History since 1900 (2007), which argues for and exemplifies new ways of thinking about the material constitution of modernity.
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      published contributions
  • Technosphere Editorial
  • Sasha Engelmann
  • Lois Epstein
    • stein is Arctic Program Director at the Wilderness Society an American land conservation non-profit. A licensed engineer, she has served on a number of federal advisory committees, including a National Academy of Sciences committee studying oil and gas regulations, and, for twelve years, a committee focusing on oil pipeline safety. Epstein holds a Master of Civil Engineering with a specialization in environme
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  • Eberhard Faust
  • Jennifer Gabrys
    • Jennifer Gabrys is Reader in the Department of Sociology at Goldsmiths, University of London, and Principal Investigator on the ERC-funded project, "Citizen Sense." Her publications include Digital Rubbish: A Natural History of Electronics (University of Michigan Press, 2011); and Program Earth: Environmental Sensing Technology and the Making of a Computational Planet (University of Minnesota Press, forthcoming).
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      published contributions
  • Elaine Gan
  • Oliver Gantner
  • Beate Geissler and Oliver Sann
  • Florian Goldmann
    • Florian Goldmann is a Berlin-based artist and a PhD candidate at the DFG Research Training Center Visibility and Visualisation – Hybrid Forms of Pictorial Knowledge as well as at the Brandenburg Center for Media Studies, both Potsdam University. His research focus is the utilization of models as a means of both commemorating and predicting catastrophe. In 2015, he took part in the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) in Sendai, Japan. Goldmann is one of the founders of the research collective STRATAGRIDS and the author of Flexible Signposts to Coded Territories (2012), an analysis of football hooligan graffiti in Athens as a system of fluid signage.
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      published contributions
  • Mark Graham
  • Jacques Grinevald
  • Johan Gärdebo
    • Johan Gärdebo is a PhD candidate at the Royal Institute of Technology affiliated to the Environmental Humanities Laboratory (EHL). H
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      published contributions
  • Orit Halpern
    • Orit Halpern is a Strategic Hire in Interactive Design and an associate professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Concordia University, Montreal. Her work bridges the histories of science, computing, and cybernetics with design and art practice. She is also a co-director of the Speculative Life Research Cluster, Montreal, a laboratory situated at the intersection of art and life sciences, architecture and design, and computational media (www.speculativelife.com). Her recent monograph, Beautiful Data (2015), is a history of interactivity, data visualization, and ubiquitous computing. www.orithalpern.net
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      published contributions
  • Eva Hayward
  • Gabrielle Hecht
  • Gerda Heck
  • Florian Hecker
    • dio 3 as the broadcaster’s first ever live binaural broadcast. Recent major exhibitions
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      published contributions
  • Carola Hein
    • Carola Hein is a professor of the history of architecture and urban planning in the Architecture Department at Delft University of Technology. She has published widely on topics in contemporary and historical architectural and urban planning, notably that of Europe and Japan. Her current research interests include transmission of architectural and urban ideas along international networks, focusing specifically on port cities, and the global architecture of oil. Her books include Port Cities: Dynamic Landscapes and Global Networks (2011), Cities, Autonomy, and Decentralization in Japan (2006), and The Capital of Europe: Architecture and Urban Planning for the European Union (2004).
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      published contributions
  • Julian Henriques
    • Julian Henriques is the convener of the MA in Script Writing and Director of the Topology Research Unit in the Department of Media and Communications at Goldsmiths, University of London. Prior to this, he ran the film and television department at the Caribbean Institute of Media and Communication (CARIMAC) at the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. His credits as a writer and director include the reggae musical feature film Babymother (1998) and as a sound artist, Knots & Donuts, exhibited at Tate Modern in 2011. Henriques researches street cultures and technologies and his publications include Changing the Subject: Psychology, Social Regulation, and Subjectivity (1998), Sonic Bodies: Reggae Sound Systems, Performance Techniques, and Ways of Knowing (2011), and Sonic Media (forthcoming).
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      published contributions
  • Hanna Husberg
    • Hanna Husberg is a Stockholm-based artist. She graduated from ENSB-A in Paris in 2007 and is currently a PhD in Practice candidate at the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna.
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      published contributions
  • Sabine Höhler
  • Erich Hörl
  • Timothy Johnson
  • Peter K. Haff
  • Bernd Kasparek
  • Nikos Katsikis
  • Laleh Khalili
  • Axel Kleidon
  • Alexander Klose
    • Dr. Alexander Klose studied History, Law, Philosophy, Art, and Cultural Studies. From 2005-07 he held a scholarship at Bauhaus Universität Weimar for his PhD project on standardized containers used in transport as one of the leading material media in the 20th century. Between 2009 and 2014 he worked as a research associate and programme developer at Kulturstiftung des Bundes. In 2015 in the forefront of COP 21, he co-curated Blackmarket for Useful Knowledge and Non-Knowledge No. 18 – On Becoming Earthlings: 150 dialogues and exercises in shrinking and expanding the Human at Musée de l'Homme, Paris. His latest publication is: The Container Principle. How a box changes the way we think (2015).
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  • Karin Knorr Cetina
  • Scott Knowles
  • Nile Koetting
  • Nicole Koltick
    • Nicole Koltick is an assistant professor in the Westphal College of Media Arts & Design at Drexel University, Philadelphia. She is Founding Director of the Design Futures Lab at Westphal College, which is currently pursuing design research to stimulate debate on the potential implications of emerging technological and scientific developments within society. Koltick’s practice spans art, science, technology, design, and philosophy, and current work focuses on the philosophical, material, and relational implications of aesthetics as they intersect with emerging developments in computational creativity, artificially intelligent autonomous systems, robotics, and synthetic biological hybrids.
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      published contributions
  • Nik Kosmas
  • Matthijs Kouw
    • Matthijs Kouw joined the Rathenau Instituut, The Hague, in March 2016. He holds an MA in Philosophy and an MSc in Science and Technology Studies from the University of Amsterdam as well as a PhD from Maastricht University. In his PhD thesis, Kouw describes how and to what extent reliance on models can introduce vulnerabilities through the assumptions, uncertainties, and blind spots concomitant with modeling practice. He was employed as a postdoctoral researcher at the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), during which time he acted as a member of the Dutch delegation for plenary sessions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
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      published contributions
  • Matija Kralj
  • Kei Kreutler
  • Lars Kulik
    • Lars Kulik studied biology at the Humboldt University of Berlin. He received his doctorate on the development of social behavior of rhesus monkeys at the University of Leipzig and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. He lives with his family in Berlin.
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      published contributions
  • Richard L. Hindle
    • Richard L. Hindle is an assistant professor of landscape architecture and environmental planning at the University of California, Berkeley. His current research focuses on patent innovation in landscape related technologies, from large-scale mappings of riverine and coastal systems to detailed historical studies on the antecedents of vegetated architecture. His work explores the potential of new technological narratives and material processes to reframe theory, practice, and the production of landscape. Recent works include the articles “Levees That Might Have Been” (2015), and “Infrastructures of Innovation” in Scaling Infrastructure (MIT Center for Advanced Urbanism, 2016), and the exhibition Geographies of Innovation at UC Berkeley (2015).
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      published contributions
  • Hannah Landecker
  • Brian Larkin
  • Bruno Latour
  • Manfred Laubichler
  • John Law
    • hn Law was a professor of sociology at Keele University, Lancaster, and the Open University, Milton Keynes, and a co-director of the Economic and Social Researc
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      published contributions
  • Yoneda Lemma
    • ents from one fiction to another. She has exhibited her work at V4ULT, Berlin; Le Cube, Par
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      published contributions
  • Esther Leslie
    • t theories of aesthetics and culture, with a particular focus on the work of Walter Benjamin and Theodor Adorno. It deals with the poetics of science, European literary and visual modern
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      published contributions
  • George Lewis
    • my of Arts and Letters, New York. He has been a member of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM), Chicago, since 1971. Lewis’s work as composer, electronic performer, installa
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      published contributions
  • S. Løchlann Jain
  • Donald MacKenzie
  • Stefan Maier
  • Chowra Makaremi
  • Annapurna Mamidipudi
  • Laura McLean
    • Laura McLean is a curator, artist, and writer based in London. She is a graduate of Goldsmiths College and Sydney College of the Arts, where she later lectured. She has also studied at Alberta College of Art and Design, and the Universität der Künste Berlin.
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  • Eden Medina
    • Eden Medina is an associate professor of informatics and computing, affiliated associate professor of law, and adjunct associate professor of history at Indiana University, Bloomington. Her research and teaching address the social, historical, and legal dimensions of our increasingly data-driven world, including the relationship of technology to human rights and free expression, the relationship between political innovation and technological innovation, and the ways that human and political values shape technological design. Medina’s writings also use science and technology as a way to broaden understandings of Latin American history and the geography of innovation. She is the author of Cybernetic Revolutionaries: Technology and Politics in Allende's Chile (2011) and the co-editor of Beyond Imported Magic: Essays on Science, Technology, and Society in Latin America (2014).
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  • Anne-Sophie Milon
    • Anne-Sophie Milon is an artist and a freelance illustrator and animator working and living in Bristol, UK. After completing two Masters in Art, she has recently concluded the program of experimentation in Art and Politics at SciencesPo (SPEAP) in Paris.
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      published contributions
  • Paul N. Edwards
  • Gerald Nestler
    • Gerald Nestler is an artist and writer who combines theory and post-disciplinary conversation with video, installation, performance, text, code, graphics, sound, and speech. He explores what he calls the derivative condition of contemporary social relations and its paradigmatic financial models, operations, processes, narratives, and fictions. He is currently working on an “aesthetics of resolution” that maps counterfictions and counterimaginations for “renegade activism,” which revolves around the demonstration as a combined artistic, technological, social, and political practice. Nestler holds a practice-based PhD from the Centre for Research Architecture at Goldsmiths, University of London.
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      published contributions
  • Huiying Ng
  • Daniel Niles
    • terial, millenary and momentary—that their knowledge takes, and, finally, the significance of this experience to our understanding of t
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      published contributions
  • James P. M. Syvitski
    • James P. M. Syvitski is Executive Director of the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) at the University of Colorado Boulder. From 2011 to 2016, he chaired the International Council for Science’s International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), which provides essential scientific leadership and knowledge of the Earth system to help guide society toward a sustainable pathway during rapid global change. His specialty is the global flux of water and sediment (river and ocean borne) and its trends in the Anthropocene. He works at the forefront of computational geosciences, including sediment transport, land-ocean interactions, and Earth-surface dynamics.
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      published contributions
  • Luciana Parisi
    • Luciana Parisi is Reader in Cultural Theory, Chair of the PhD program in Cultural Studies, and Co-director of the Digital Culture Unit at Goldsmiths, University of London. Her research focuses on cybernetics, information theory and computation, complexity and evolutionary theories, and the technocapitalist investment in artificial intelligence, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. Her books include Abstract Sex: Philosophy, Biotechnology and the Mutations of Desire (2004) and Contagious Architecture: Computation, Aesthetics, and Space (2013). She is currently researching the history of automation and the philosophical consequences of logical thinking in machines.
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      published contributions
  • Lisa Parks
  • Matteo Pasquinelli
  • Karen Pinkus
    • w York. She is also a faculty fellow of the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future, Ithaca. Author of numerous publications in literary studies, Italian studies, critical theory, and environmental humanities, Pinkus is also Editor of the journal Diacritics. In her latest book, Fuel (2016), Pinkus thinks about issues crucial to climate ch
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  • Giulia Rispoli
  • Sophia Roosth
    • t when researchers are building new biological systems in order to investigate how biology works. She holds a PhD from the Massachuse
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      published contributions
  • Arno Rosemarin
  • Rafico Ruiz
    • afico Ruiz is Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Banting Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Sociology at the University of Alberta, Edmonton. He studies the relationships between mediation and social space, particularly in the Arctic and subarctic; the cultural geographies of natural resource engagements; and
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  • Kim Rygiel
    • f International Affairs in Waterloo, Canada. Her research focuses on border security, migration, and citizenship in North America and Europe. She investigates how citizens and non-citizens engage in citizenship practices and challenge notions
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      published contributions
  • Dorion Sagan
  • Isabelle Saint-Saëns
  • Birgit Schneider
  • Sever
    • SEVER was developed as a speculative design project by Francesco Sebregondi, Alexey Platonov, Inna Pokazanyeva, and Ildar Iakubov during the New Normal postgraduate program at Strelka Institute for Media, Architecture and Design, Moscow. SEVER seeks to intervene into current Arctic debates by disturbing the landscape of the region’s possible futures
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      published contributions
  • Jens Soentgen
  • C Spencer Yeh
  • Nick Srnicek
  • Lizzie Stark
    • Lizzie Stark is an author, journalist, and experience designer. She is the author of two books, Pandora’s DNA (2014), exploring so-called ‘breast cancer genes’ and her first book, Leaving Mundania (2012), which investigates the subculture of live action role play, or larp. Her journalism and essays have appeared in The Washington Post, the Daily Beast, The Today Show Website, io9, Fusion, the Philadelphia Inquirer and elsewhere. She holds an MS from the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. She has organized numerous conventions and experiences across the US. Her most recent work is as a programming coordinator for Living Games Austin, and as co-editor and contributor for the #Feminism anthology, which collects 34 nano-games written by feminists from eleven countries.
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  • Carolyn Steel
  • Benjamin Steininger
  • Lucy Suchman
    • ology of Science and Technology in the Department of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, UK. Her research interests within the field of feminist science and technology studies are focused on technological imaginaries and material practices
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  • Kaushik Sunder Rajan
    • echnology studies, and postcolonial studies, holding a special interest in the global political economy of biomedicine, with a comparative focus on the Un
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      published contributions
  • Jenna Sutela
    • Jenna Sutela’s installations, texts, and sound performances seek to identify and react to precarious social and material moments, often in relation to technology. Most recently, she has been exploring exceedingly complex biological and computational systems, ultimately unknowable and always becoming something new. Her work has been presented, among other places, at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London; Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin; and the Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo and her writing has been published by Fiktion, Harvard Design Magazine, and Sternberg Press.
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  • Bronislaw Szerszynski
    • Bronislaw Szerszynski is a Reader in Sociology at Lancaster University in the UK. Szerszynski’s work has developed across several themes, including the role of Western religious history in shaping contemporary understandings of technology and the environment—typified by his book Nature, Technology and the Sacred (Wiley-Blackwell, 2005).
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  • Elisa T. Bertuzzo
    • Elisa T. Bertuzzo studied comparative literature, sociology, communication, and media studies and holds a PhD in urban studies. She was a curator and project leader with Habitat Forum Berlin, including for the project Paradigmising Karail Basti (2010–16). Bridging discourses from the fields of cultural and urban studies, her research focuses on the everyday life facets of urbanization and settlement in South Asia. On that topic, she published Fragmented Dhaka: Analysing Everyday Life with Henri Lefebvre’s Theory of Production of Space (2009) and runs her multimedia project Archives of Movement (since 2012), which deals with the everyday life of temporary labor migrants in Bangladesh and India.
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  • Gregory T. Cushman
    • Gregory T. Cushman is Associate Professor of International Environmental History at the University of Kansas.
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      published contributions
  • Nasrin Tabatabai
    • Nasrin Tabatabai is an artist who works both in Iran and the Netherlands. Since 2004, she has collaborated with Babak Afrassiabi on various joint projects and the publication of the bilingual magazine Pages (Farsi and English). Their work seeks to articulate the undecidable space between art and its historical conditions, including the recurring question of the place of the archive in defining the juncture between politics, history, and the practice of art. The artists’ work has been presented internationally in various solo and group exhibitions and they have been tutors at the Jan Van Eyck Academie, Maastricht (2008–13), and Erg, école supérieure des arts, Brussels (2015–).
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      published contributions
  • Ksenia Tatarchenko
    • dies Institute, Geneva University, specializing in the history of Russian science and technology. She has held positions as a visiting Assistant Professor of History at NYU Shanghai and a post-doctoral fellow at the Harriman Institute, Columbia. Most broadly, she studies questions of knowledge circulation to situate Soviet developments in the global context. She is currently writing a book on science and innovation cultures in Siberia provisionally
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  • Katerina Teaiwa
    • Dr. Katerina Teaiwa is Associate Professor at the Department of Gender, Media and Cultural Studies, School of Culture, History & Language and the president of the Australian Association for Pacific Studies. Her main area of research looks at the histories of phosphate mining in the central Pacific. Her work does not only span academic research, publications, and lectures, but also manifests itself in other formats within the arts and popular culture. Her work has inspired a permanent exhibition at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, which tells the story of Pacific phosphate mining through Banaban dance. In 2015, she published „Consuming Ocean Island: Stories of People and Phosphate from Banaba“, Indiana University Press. She is currently working with visual artist Yuki Kihara on a multimedia exhibition for Carriageworks in Sydney.
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  • Terre Thaemlitz
  • Jol Thomson
  • Claire Tolan
  • John Tresch
  • Etienne Turpin
    • Etienne Turpin is a philosopher, Founding Director of anexact office, and a research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, where he coordinates the Humanitarian Infrastructures Group and co-directs the PetaBencana.id disaster mapping project for the Urban Risk Lab. He is the editor of Architecture in the Anthropocene: Encounters Among Design, Deep Tim
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  • Asonseh Ukah
    • Asonzeh Ukah is a sociologist and historian of religion. He joined the University of Cape Town in 2013 and previously taught at the University of Bayreuth (2005–13), where he also earned a doctorate and habilitation in history of religions. His research interests include religious urbanism, the sociology of Pentecostalism, and religion and media. He is Director of the Research Institute on Christianity and Society in Africa (RICSA), University of Cape Town, and Affiliated Senior Fellow of Bayreuth International Graduate School of African Studies (BIGSAS), University of Bayreuth. He is the author of A New Paradigm of Pentecostal Power (2008) and Bourdieu in Africa (edited with Magnus Echtler, 2016).
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  • Underworlds
  • Sebastian Vehlken
    • Sebastian Vehlken is a media theorist and cultural historian at Leuphana University Lüneburg and Permanent Senior Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study on Media Cultures of Computer Simulation (MECS). From 2013 to 2017, he worked as MECS Junior Director, and in 2015–16, he was a visiting professor at Humboldt-Universität Berlin, the University of Vienna, and Leuphana. His areas of interest include the theory and history of computer simulation and digital media, the media history of swarm intelligence, and the epistemology of think tanks. His current research project, Plutonium Worlds, explores the application of computer simulations in West German fast breeder reactor programs.
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      published contributions
  • Vladimir Vernadsky
  • Ben Vida
    • Korea, Australia ,and Europe at such institutions as the Guggenheim, New York; Centro Pecci, Prato, Italy; STUK Arts Center, Leuven
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  • Davor Vidas
    • Davor Vidas is a research professor in international law and Director of the Law of the Sea Programme at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway. He is Chair of the Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise and a member of the Anthropocene Working Group. Vidas has been involved in international law research for over thirty years, focusing since 2009 on implications of the Anthropocene for the development of international law. Among his books are The World Ocean in Globalisation (2011) and Law, Technology and Science for Oceans in Globalisation (2010). He is the editor-in-chief of the book series Anthropocene (Skolska knjiga, Zagreb), launched in 2017.
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  • Kalindi Vora
  • Jennifer Walshe
    • porary Arts, New York; DAAD Berliner Künstle
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      published contributions
  • Hannes Wiedemann
    • Hannes Wiedemann is a Berlin-based photographer. He studied at the Ostkreuz School of Photography, Berlin. For his project Grinders (2015–16), he followed the American bodyhacking community, a small group of people across the United States working out of garages and basements to become real cyborgs. Recent exhibitions include NEW PHOTOGRAPHY II (2017) at Gallery ALAN, Istanbul, and HUMAN UPGRADE, with Susanna Hertrich (2016), at Schader-Stiftung Gallery, Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt. www.hanneswiedemann.com
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      published contributions
  • Elvia Wilk
  • Cary Wolfe
    • Cary Wolfe is Bruce and Elizabeth Dunlevie Professor of English and Founding Director of 3CT: Center for Critical and Cultural Theory at Rice University, Houston. He is the author of What Is Posthumanism? (2010), a book that weaves together principal concerns of his work: animal studies, system theory, pragmatism, and post-structuralism. It is part of the series Posthumanities, for which he serves as Founding Editor at the University of Minnesota Press. His most recent publication is Before the Law: Humans and Other Animals in Biopolitical Frame (2013) and earlier books and edited collections include Animal Rites: American Culture, The Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory (2003) and Zoontologies: The Question of the Animal (2003).
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      published contributions
  • Andrew Yang
  • Jan Zalasiewicz
    • Dr. Jan Zalasiewicz is Professor of Palaeobiology at the University of Leicester and Chair of the Anthropocene Working Group of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. A field geologist, paleontologist, and stratigrapher, he teaches and publishes on geology and earth history, in particular on fossil ecosystems and environments that span over half a billion years of geological time.
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  • Anna Zett
  • Sander van der Leeuw
    • ionships, and complex systems theory. He investigates the preconditions for and the practices and role of invention, sustainability, and innovation in societies. He has done
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  • Liv Østmo
    • Liv Østmo is one of the founders and current Dean of the Sámi University of Applied Sciences, Kautokeino, Norway, where she researches and lectures on the subject of multicultural understanding. For the last eight years, Østmo has worked with traditional Sámi knowledge and she is currently working on putting the finishing touches on a methodology book about the documentation of this knowledge.
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© Nikos Katsikis

Operational Landscapes and the Planetary Thünen Town

Urbanization organizes the planetary terrain—not just through cities and agglomeration zones, but also through the totality of diffused production areas and global commodity chains. On the basis of a metageographical analysis, urbanist Nikos Katsikis portrays the extensive transformation of the planetary terrain through the assembly of operational landscapes into a functional “Hinterglobe.”
“Imagine a very large town, at the center of a fertile plain which is crossed by no navigable river or canal. Throughout the plain the soil is capable of cultivation and of the same fertility. Far from the town, the plain turns into an uncultivated wilderness which cuts off all communication between this state and the outside world. There are no other towns on the plain. The central town must therefore supply the rural areas with all manufactured products, and in return it will obtain all its provisions from the surrounding countryside. The mines that provide the State with salt and metals are near the central town which, as it is the only one, we shall in the future call simply ‘The Town.’Johann Heinrich von Thünen, Isolated State. An English Edition of Der Isolierte Staat [1826]. Translated by Carla M. Wartenberg. Edited with an Introduction by Peter Hall. Oxford: Pergamon, 1966, page 1.
So opens German economic geographer Johann Heinrich von Thünen’s famous treatise “The Isolated State.” Developed during the early nineteenth century, von Thünen’s model aims to address the optimal organization of agricultural land around a single settlement, based on a combined calculation of production costs, land rent, and transport costs to the market (“the Town”). The resulting spatial configuration is a series of concentric rings surrounding the Town, the sole center of exchange (fig. 1). Closest to the Town lies a zone of intensive agriculture where farmers produce perishable goods such as dairy products and vegetables. Interestingly, the second ring is a zone of forestry, since wood was at the time the main fuel and construction material, and certainly heavy and difficult to transport. The third ring is dedicated to extensive cropland (wheat, corn, and potatoes). Further out lies the last zone, comprising pasture for the grazing of animals, which after a point becomes financially unsustainable to cultivate and eventually turns into wilderness, which in turn prevents all potential exchange with other towns. This “frontier” defines a closed but “complete” subsistent system, which even predicts the mining operations necessary for the provision of metals and salt (important for food preservation and storage at the time). Mines are conveniently positioned “close to the Town” in order to not disturb the location of the single settlement or the concentric land-use pattern around it.
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Fig. 1: Conceptual model of the Isolated State. Source: Redrawn by the author based on Johann Heinrich von Thünen, "Von Thünen's Isolated State." Oxford: Pergamon, 1966.

In von Thünen’s model we find one of the most prototypical, and also persistent, models of the metabolic relationship between a city and what has been often referred to as its “hinterland.” The model can be seen as a microcosm: a generic, but complete, pattern of self-sufficient geographical organization, based on specialized land use, bound and structured around a nodal agglomeration. This organization directly reflects a particular social and spatial division of labor: the Town is dependent upon the surrounding hinterland for its supply of food, construction materials, and energy, and the hinterland is dependent upon the Town for manufactured goods and services. The generic structure of the model allows an initial foregrounding of a particular interpretation of urbanization: it is revealed as a mode of reciprocal, geographical organization. The existence of the Town organizes and produces the landscapes around it, without which the Town would not be able to exist in the first place. Agglomeration and hinterland are two sides of the same coin connected through exchange, which is, again, only meaningful through, and dependent upon, the specialization of the human occupation of the Earth.
But although it is helpful to conceptualize urbanization as a condition of geographical organization, the closed, self-sufficient metabolism that von Thünen’s model suggests has long been surpassed, if it ever existed. The model’s geographically contiguous, local hinterland mostly reflects the settlement structures of pre-industrial societies, which even von Thünen’s age had already left behind. In fact, even in the preindustrial era, this metabolic model would have presented a strong simplification: interregional, long-distance trade has always been an important factor in the organization of human settlement, and local, contiguous hinterlands have always coexisted with more extensive metabolic flows linking cities and regions. The past two centuries, however, have seen a complete explosion of the geometabolic interdependencies of urbanization, under consecutive waves of capitalist development and the associated advancements in transport and communication technologies.David Harvey, "Cities or urbanization?." City 1.1-2 (1996): 38-61.
The shifting and continuously globalizing spatial divisions of labor have interwoven an increasingly globalized meshwork of production landscapes into the global system of exchange, leading to new forms of concentration of population and economic activity in growing agglomeration zones, and also to the expansion of their metabolic support into a multiscalar array of global hinterlands.
Still, the generic nature of von Thünen’s model allows us to start sketching this planetary organization of capitalist urbanization through a conceptual experiment: the Isolated State could be conceived as a micrographic conceptualization of nothing less than the entire world. The Town of the model corresponds to the universe of agglomeration areas, while the hinterland of the model corresponds to the totality of productive landscapes that support them. An initial visualization of this thought experiment is reflected in the map of figure 2: the global system of all areas of concentrated settlement of all sizes (from towns to cities to larger metropolitan areas and agglomeration zones) is plotted in orange, against the totality of the used part of the planet, shown as a dark background.Based on a compilation of the following datasets: “Global Human Settlement Layer,” European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2016, http://ghsl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/; K.-H. Erb et al., “A Comprehensive Global 5min Resolution Land-Use Dataset for the Year 2000 Consistent with National Census Data,” Journal of Land Use Science, vol. 2, no .3 (2007), pp. 191–224; Vector Map Level 0 (VMap0) dataset, US National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 1997.
Taken together, the “Planetary Thünen Town” covers no more than 3 percent of the total used land area of the planet (around 3,000,000 km2). The majority of the used land area of the planet, then—the extensive dark mass that covers almost 70 percent of land surface (around 100,000,00 km2)—corresponds to landscapes of primary production, such as agriculture, grazing, forestry, and mineral extraction, as well as of circulation and waste disposal.

This other 97 percent of the used area of the planet, these “operational landscapes” of planetary urbanization, which traditionally has been considered to constitute the hinterlands of cities, has also been undergoing intense transformations under globalized urbanization, leading to the increased specialization and regional decoupling of these landscapes. Building upon the agenda of planetary urbanization, urbanization is here revealed as a dialectical relationship between what has been framed as “concentrated urbanization,” broadly referring to agglomeration zones in their various forms, and “extended urbanization,” including the operational landscapes of agricultural production, resource extraction, circulation, and waste disposal.This contribution is part of an ongoing research project on the operational landscapes of planetary urbanization, developed with Neil Brenner at the Urban Theory Lab, Harvard Graduate School of Design (www.urbantheorylab.net). Major literature on planetary urbanization agenda includes N. Brenner and C. Schmid, “Towards a New Epistemology of the Urban?” City, vol. 19, nos. 2–3 (2015), pp.151–82; N. Brenner and C. Schmid, “Planetary Urbanization,” in M. Gandy (ed.), Urban Constellations. Berlin: Jovis, 2011, pp. 10–13; N. Brenner, Implosions/Explosions: Towards a Study of Planetary Urbanization. Berlin: Jovis, 2014; and N. Brenner, “Theses on Urbanization,” Public Culture, vol. 25, no. 1 (2013), pp. 85¬–114.
What is the essence of urbanization is not the condition of concentration per se, but rather the condition of geographical interdependency that emerges out of it. It is through the globalized interdependency between agglomeration landscapes and these extensive operational landscapes that urbanization organizes the planetary terrain.For an initial framing of the concept of operational landscapes, see Nikos Katsikis, “The ‘Other’ Horizontal Metropolis: Landscapes of Urban Interdependence,” in Paola Viganò, Chiara Cavalieri, and Martina Barcelloni Corte (eds.), The Horizontal Metropolis Between Urbanism and Urbanization. Berlin: Springer, 2018, pp. 23–45.
Unfortunately, urbanization is often solely associated with the production of one type of landscape: the “urban fabric,” corresponding to densely built up, densely populated settlement spaces. Urban growth is often considered to unfold with the expansion of this urban fabric over that of agricultural, forest, or other landscapes. But, in fact, while urbanization might be in some areas consuming productive landscapes, it is at the same time also producing them elsewhere in the world. Since 1900, settlement areas have increased in size more than four times, following a similar growth in population, but at the same time, agricultural areas have also expanded more than two times, and their operationalization has likewise been highly intensified to support the growing metabolic pressure.Kees Klein Goldewijk et al. “The HYDE 3.1 Spatially Explicit Database of Human‐Induced Global Land‐Use Change over the Past 12,000 Years,” Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol. 20, no. 1 (2011), pp. 73–86.
Following the relationship between the distribution of population and the operationalization of the planetary terrain perhaps offers a more useful indicator in understanding urbanization as geographical organization, as compared to the typical understanding of urbanization as the growth and expansion of cities. That is, for most of the nineteenth century, and up until the mid-twentieth century, population grew slower than the expansion of used land (land of all sorts, but predominantly agricultural land), whereas since the 1950s, the rate of population growth has been consistently higher than the expansion of used land. To simplify this general observation: the period up to the 1950s could be characterized as a period of expansion, leading to declining overall densities (fewer people on average over used areas), and we could call the current period, starting in the 1950s, a period of intensification, with more and more people depending on a very slowly expanding and deeply intensifying set of operational landscapes. In sum to say, as the metabolic frontier of the Planetary Thünen Town has been closing down, more intensive and specialized modes of operationalization have been proliferating in order to support it.
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Fig. 2: The Planetary Thünen Town at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Agglomeration zones in orange, plotted against the totality of the used part of the planet in black, including agricultural lands (cropland, grazing), forestry zones, mining areas, and transport infrastructure (ground, marine). Source: Cartography by the author based on a combination of data from: “Global Human Settlement Layer,” European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2016, http://ghsl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/; K.-H. Erb et al., “A Comprehensive Global 5min Resolution Land-Use Dataset for the Year 2000 Consistent with National Census Data,” Journal of Land Use Science, vol. 2, no .3 (2007), pp. 191–224; Vector Map Level 0 (VMap0) dataset, US National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 1997; Global Commercial Activity (shipping) dataset, US National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis.

But what is of utmost importance is that the contours of this operationalization have been largely uneven around the world. The map in figure 3 offers a largely impressionistic effort to grasp the variation that characterizes the contemporary condition of planetary urbanization, deconstructing the dichotomy between the agglomerations and the “exterior” dark pattern presented in figure 2. This interpretation aims to reveal the asymmetrical distribution of population, infrastructure, built land, and productive land. Population densities (in blue gradient) are weighted upon the density of transportation networks (red gradient) and built land (red gradient), as well as upon densities of productive land, cropland, forest, and grazing pasture (green gradients). A further synthetic animation summarizes the major arguments. This scheme starts to uncover the rich complexity of configurations and the great unevenness in the distribution of equipment, population, and productive land, but of course is still unable to address the complex socioecological tensions that underlie their configuration.
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Fig. 3: Composite landscapes of planetary urbanization. Composite overlay of a multitude of layers of operationalization of the planetary terrain. Population density (blue gradient); infrastructural equipment and built-up area density (red gradients); primary production including cropland, grazing, and forestry (green gradients). Source: Cartography by the author based on a combination of data from: “Global Human Settlement Layer,” European Commission Joint Research Centre; Erb et al., “A Comprehensive Global 5min Resolution Land-Use Dataset”; Vector Map Level 0 (VMap0) dataset, US National Imagery and Mapping Agency.

Indeed, assuming the universal applicability of this simplified model of the Planetary Thünen Town, even through this more complex visualization, entails the risk of homogenizing the extremely uneven conditions and processes that shape the landscapes of urbanization across the Earth. This is a risk very similar to the problematic effect of the Anthropocene debate in concealing the complex socioecological tensions that underlie the era’s undeniable transformation:Paul J. Crutzen, “The ‘Anthropocene,’” in Eckart Ehlers and Thomas Krafft (eds.), Earth System Science in the Anthropocene. Berlin: Springer, 2006, pp. 13–18.
The Anthropocene does not reflect the impact of humanity on the planet but rather the ways in which capitalist development, as the dominant mode of development, has been interweaving social and natural systems over at least the past two centuries. The Anthropocene could be in fact better conceptualized as the Capitalocene: an era in which consecutive waves of capitalist urbanization have been organizing both society and nature in the search for profit.Jason W. Moore, Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital. London Verso Books, 2015.
The landscapes of the Capitalocene, interwoven with the geometabolic landscapes of planetary urbanization, can thus be conceptualized as landscapes of a profit matrix.David Harvey, The Limits to Capital. London: Verso Books, 2018.
While in Thünen’s model the relationship between the Town and the hinterland is defined by the optimal allocation of land and transport costs, in the age of planetary urbanization, the configuration of agglomerations and operational landscapes is defined by the search for profit. And while in Thünen’s model the relationship between the Town and its hinterland is local, geographically contiguous, and direct, the search for profit in the age of planetary urbanization has exploded the relationship between agglomerations and operational landscapes into geographically discontinuous, globalized, specialized, and indirectly interlinked configurations.
Discontinuous and Globalized
With the continuous division of labor under capitalism, the chain of production and the labor processes involved in the production of almost every commodity grow exponentially. In most globalization debates, this horizontal organization of global production networks through complex commodity chains has emphasized mostly the reorganization of the top sectors of the economy—that is, the global relocation and reorganization of manufacturing (accompanied by the exploding trade in intermediate products)—and the associated globalization of the tertiary sectors of the economy, especially management and financial activities. However, together with the globalization of manufacturing and service sectors, another globalization has been taking place, one that has remained largely invisible: a globalization of the primary sectors of the economy, which is much more significant for the reshuffling of global metabolic patterns. Since the mid-twentieth century, the production and circulation of primary physical commodities (agricultural and mining products, fuels, and construction materials) has been growing exponentially.
Since the 1950s, while population has grown less than three times, global material extraction (biomass, fossil fuels, minerals, construction materials) has grown almost five times, from around 15 billion tons in 1950 to almost 70 billion tons in 2010. At the same time, trade in primary commodities has grown more than twelve times, from 900 million tons in 1950 to 10 billion tons in 2010. Only around 6 percent of production was globally traded in 1950, while in 2010 it was closer to 15 percent.For global trade statistics, see Ricardo Hausmann et al., The Atlas of Economic Complexity: Mapping Paths to Prosperity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014; and United Nations Comtrade (Commodity Trade) Database, http://comtrade.un.org. For global material extraction and global material flows data, see F. Krausmann et al., Growth in Global Materials Use, GDP and Population during the 20th Century,” Ecological Economics, vol. 68, no. 10 (2009).
This globalization of the primary sectors of the economy has been interwoven with a splintering of the metabolic basis of urbanization, as previously local and geographically contiguous hinterlands have dissolved into a globalized meshwork of global production and logistical networks. Of course, not all metabolic flows have been delocalized, and not all operational landscapes have been globalized. But even systems with direct geographic delimitations (such as water supplies of cities) are being continuously stretched, as agglomeration zones expand and more and more physical commodities become part of global commodity chains.
Specialized
As operational landscapes of primary production have become increasingly integrated into global systems of exchange, they have also become excessively specialized. And while specialization in the production of primary commodities are to a considerable degree linked to the specificities of natural geography, the comparative advantages of natural geography have are also interwoven with the effects of economies of scale, regulatory frameworks, corporate practices, and geopolitical interests. The concentration of the majority of the production of a series of physical commodities in certain regions around the world creates a system of “core operational landscapes,” which are responsible for providing the material basis of all layers of production that are based upon them, similar to the way that certain global cities play a decisive role in commanding the top sectors of the economy.
Like the concentrations of fossil fuel and natural gas deposits across Venezuela, North America, Russia, Nigeria, and the Gulf countries, agricultural commodities such as corn and soybeans are also excessively concentrated. The Corn Belt in the United States produces almost 30 percent of all corn and soybeans; adding in the southwest regions of Brazil and the northwest regions of Argentina brings the number to almost 50 percent of all global production. Industrial crops, which are necessary inputs for a series of industries, are also extremely concentrated. For example, palm oil is almost exclusively produced across Borneo and Sumatra in Indonesia and Peninsular Malaysia, and cotton is more than 50 percent produced in China (along the Yangtze River Basin and the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain) and India (mostly in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh). Similar specializations characterize the extraction of minerals and construction materials. More than 50 percent of all aluminum production in the world is taking place in the Henan and Shandong provinces of China, while almost 50 percent of all copper has been extracted in northern Chile and southern Peru. At the same time, the region of Western Australia is extracting almost 30 percent of all iron ore in the world.UN Comtrade Database, http://comtrade.un.org.
Agglomerations zones are no longer dependent on their specific regional hinterlands for their supply; rather, global operational landscapes eventually offer the metabolic basis for several, even all, agglomeration zones in the world. Rendering the model of the city and its respective hinterland obsolete, the contemporary metabolic condition could be more accurately conceived as an extended, operational, specialized matrix of operational landscapes, interwoven through a continuous exchange with a multiscalar matrix of concentrated settlements.
Indirectly Interlinked
The metabolic exchange along this matrix—between agglomeration landscapes and operational landscapes—becomes increasingly indirect with the increasing division of labor and the complex organization of commodity production into lengthy commodity chains. The question of defining the hinterland of the city as a linear relationship, becomes not only methodologically challenging but conceptually restrictive. An obvious example is the food supply of a city. The production of almost any type of food has become a process consisting of multiple steps, whereby the output of every process becomes the input for the next, until the chain reaches consumption. The two extreme ends of all these processes can indeed be reduced to a simple interpretation of the city - hinterland model: the one end, the very basic extraction process, is connected to the exploitation of natural resources from the land; the other end, the final steps of the consumption process, are connected to the areas of high population concentration—the city. All the intermediate steps, however, involve a multitude of different spatial configurations that can be located across a multitude of sites. Next to the cultivation area there can be an initial processing or storage facility, which can then be connected to a further processing facility, which can most likely be located in a city, which however might not be the final destination of the commodity produced. It might instead be exported and consumed in another city (in the case of a finished product) or become the input for a new cycle of processing. In this case, the hinterland of a city could very well be another city. And the supply zone of a hinterland could be a city or even another hinterland.
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Fig. 4: Planetary geographies of food and feed production. Composite overlay of cropland areas producing food for humans (blue gradient) and cropland areas producing feed for livestock (red gradient). Source: Cartography by the author based on a combination of data from: E.S. Cassidy et al., “Redefining Agricultural Yields: From Tonnes to People Nourished per Hectare,” Environmental Research Letters, vol. 8, no. 3 (2013).

The map in figure 4 highlights this indirect interrelationship of operational landscapes with agglomeration landscapes and with each other, showing in two gradients the cropland dedicated to direct food production (blue gradient) and to the production of animal feed (red gradient). Out of these gradients, only the landscapes dedicated to food production could be somehow considered more directly connected to agglomeration zones, where food is actually consumed. The other production system actually provides inputs not for direct consumption but to other industries, which could be themselves located in other operational landscapes around the world (such as the feed directed to the livestock industry).
As more and more landscapes of primary production are integrated into globalized systems of capitalist production and commodity exchange, they become part of a profit landscape. The constant pressure to renegotiate their social, technical, and natural capacities in order to offer bundles of profitable commodities to the global markets leads to increasing industrialization, and equipment, and intensive monofunctional operationalization, but also to forms of social and ecological exploitation and eventually exhaustion. At the same time, due to the nature of extractive economies, these operations are still deeply grounded in the specificities of natural geographies. This particular characteristic—the high degree of rather monofunctional activities in the absence of high population densities—can be in certain cases observed as an evolving tendency, linked to ongoing processes of mechanization and automation of primary production. With the continuous thinning of these landscapes’ settlement patterns, their economic diversity is dissolved, turning them into more and more “machinic” elements of the production of primary commodities. As these operational landscapes dissolve and the traditional urban metabolism of the hinterland transforms into a globalized system of production networks and global commodity chains, social relationships are also reduced into a purely economic exchange. As urbanization generalizes this condition of geographical interdependency, operational landscapes expand and intensify the construction of a globalized shared landscape assembly. Instrumentalized through global commodity chains, this planetary operational totality signals the shift from the universe of fragmented localized hinterlands to the totality of the Hinterglobe.For a further elaboration of the concept of the Hinterglobe, see Nikos Katsikis, “From Hinterland to Hinterglobe: Urbanization as Geographical Organization” (PhD diss., Harvard Graduate School of Design, 2016).