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  • Lawrence Abu Hamdan
  • Babak Afrassiabi
    • Babak Afrassiabi is an artist who works both in Iran and the Netherlands. Since 2004, he has collaborated with Nasrin Tabatabai on various joint projects and the publication of the bilingual magazine Pages (Farsi and English). Their work seeks to articulate the undecidable space between art and its historical conditions, including the recurring question of the place of the archive in defining the juncture between politics, history, and the practice of art. The artists’ work has been presented internationally in various solo and group exhibitions and they have been tutors at the Jan Van Eyck Academie, Maastricht (2008–13), and Erg, école supérieure des arts, Brussels (2015–).
    • published contributions
  • Malin Ah-King
  • Memo Akten
    • . He is currently a PhD candidate at Goldsmiths, University of London, where he is researching artificial intelligence, machine learning, and expressive human-ma
    • published contributions
  • Jamie Allen
  • S. Ayesha Hameed
    • Dr. S. Ayesha Hameed is a Lecturer in Visual Cultures and the Joint Programme Leader in Fine Art and History of Art Research Fellow in Forensic Architecture at Goldsmiths, London. She received her PhD in Social and Political Thought at York University, Canada in 2008
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  • Sammy Baloji
  • Subhankar Banerjee
  • On Barak
    • On Barak is a social and cultural historian of science and technology in non-Western settings. He has been a senior lecturer in the Department of Middle Eastern and African History at Tel Aviv University since 2012. Prior to this, he was a member of the Princeton Society of Fellows. In 2009, Barak received a joint PhD in History and Middle Eastern Studies from New York University. His most recent book is On Time: Technology and Temporality in Modern Egypt (University of California Press, 2013), and his current publication project, Coalonialism: Energy and Empire before the Age of Oil, is funded by a European Union Marie Curie Award and an Israel Science Foundation Grant.
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  • Anil Bawa-Cavia
    • Anil Bawa-Cavia is a computer scientist with a background in machine learning. He runs STDIO, a speculative software studio. His practice engages with algorithms, protocols, encodings, and other software artifacts and his doctoral research at the Center for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA) at University College London was on complex networks in urbanism. He is a founding member of Call & Response, a sonic arts collective and gallery space in London, and a member of the New Centre for Research & Practice.
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  • Etienne Benson
  • Josh Berson
  • Jeremy Bolen
  • Paul Boshears
  • Benjamin Bratton
    • for Media, Architecture and Design, Moscow. Bratton is also Professor of Digital Design at the Eur
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  • Axel Braun
    • Axel Braun studied photography at the Folkwang University of the Arts, Essen, and fine arts at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts de Paris. His artistic research deals with controversial infrastructure projects, tautology as an attempt to understand reality, and failed utopias in art and architecture. Currently, he is pursuing the long-term project Towards an Understanding of Anthropocene Landscapes. Recently exhibited works include Some Kind of Opposition (2016) at Galeria Centralis, Budapest, and Dragonflies drift downstream on a river (2015) at Kunstmuseum Bochum.
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  • Keith Breckenridge
  • François Bucher
    • s, focusing on ethical and aesthetic problems of cinema and television, and more recently on the image as an interdimensional field. His work has been exhibited at
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  • Lino Camprubí
  • Zachary Caple
  • Ele Carpenter
    • Dr. Ele Carpenter is a senior lecturer in curating at Goldsmiths, London. Her curatorial practice responds to interdisciplinary socio-political contexts such as the nuclear economy and the relationship between craft and code.
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  • Andrew Chubb
    • Andrew Chubb is a PhD candidate at the University of Western Australia conducting research on the relationship between Chinese public opinion and government policy in the South China Sea. His articles have appeared in the Journal of Contemporary China, Pacific Affairs, East Asia Forum, and Information, Communication & Society. His blog, South Sea Conversations (southseaconversations.wordpress.com), provides translations and analysis of Chinese discourse on the South and East China Sea issues.
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  • Louis Chude-Sokei
    • Louis Chude-Sokei is a writer and scholar currently teaching in the English Department at the University of Washington, Seattle. His academic interests range from West African, Caribbean, and American literary and cultural studies to a particular focus on sound, technology, and performance. His literary and public work focuses on immigration and black-on-black cultural contacts, conflicts, and exchanges. Chude-Sokei is the author of the award-winning book The Last “Darky”: Bert Williams, Black-on-Black Minstrelsy, and the African Diaspora (2006) and The Sound of Culture: Diaspora and Black Technopoetics (2016).
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  • Amy Cimini
  • Claire Colebrook
    • Claire Colebrook is a professor of English at Penn State University. Her areas of specialization are contemporary literature, visual culture, and theory and cultural studies. She has written articles on poetry, literary theory, queer theory, and contemporary culture. Colebrook is the co-editor of the series Critical Climate Change, published by Open Humanities Press, and a member of the advisory board of the Institute for Critical Climate Change. She recently completed two books on extinction for Open Humanities Press, Death of the PostHuman and Sex after Life (both 2014), and with Tom Cohen and J. Hillis Miller co-authored Twilight of the Anthropocene Idols (2016).
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  • Flavio D'Abramo
  • Ana Dana Beroš
    • chitect and curator focused on creating uncertain, fragile environments that catalyze social chan
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  • Pietro Daniel Omodeo
  • Rana Dasgupta
  • Filip De Boeck
    • Filip De Boeck is actively involved in teaching, promoting, coordinating and supervising research in and on Africa at the Institute for Anthropological research in Africa at the U
    • published contributions
  • Seth Denizen
    • Seth Denizen is a researcher and design practitioner trained in landscape architecture and evolutionary biology. Since completing research on the sexual behavior and evolutionary ecology of small Trinidadian fish, his work has focused on the aesthetics of scientific representation, madness, and public parks, the design of t
    • published contributions
  • Rohini Devasher
  • Jonathan Donges
    • Jonathan Donges is a postdoctoral researcher who holds a joint position at the Stockholm Resilience Centre (as Stordalen Scholar) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. He studies planetary boundaries and social dynamics in the Earth system from a complex dynamical system perspective. At Potsdam, he is Co-head of the flagship COPAN (Coevolutionary Pathways) project (www.pik-potsdam.de/copan). His published research includes work on complex network theory, dynamical systems theory, and time series analysis, with a focus on their application to our understanding of past and present climate variability and its interactions with humankind on planet Earth.
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  • Design Earth
    • ollaborative architectural practice led by El Hadi Jazairy
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  • Keller Easterling
  • Anna Echterhölter
  • David Edgerton
    • David Edgerton is Hans Rausing Professor of the History of Science and Technology and a professor of modern British history at King’s College London. After teaching at the University of Manchester, he became the founding director of the Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at Imperial College London (1993–2003), and moved along with the centre to King’s College London in August 2013. He is the author of many works, including The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History since 1900 (2007), which argues for and exemplifies new ways of thinking about the material constitution of modernity.
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  • Technosphere Editorial
  • Sasha Engelmann
  • Lois Epstein
    • stein is Arctic Program Director at the Wilderness Society an American land conservation non-profit. A licensed engineer, she has served on a number of federal advisory committees, including a National Academy of Sciences committee studying oil and gas regulations, and, for twelve years, a committee focusing on oil pipeline safety. Epstein holds a Master of Civil Engineering with a specialization in environme
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  • Eberhard Faust
  • Jennifer Gabrys
    • Jennifer Gabrys is Reader in the Department of Sociology at Goldsmiths, University of London, and Principal Investigator on the ERC-funded project, "Citizen Sense." Her publications include Digital Rubbish: A Natural History of Electronics (University of Michigan Press, 2011); and Program Earth: Environmental Sensing Technology and the Making of a Computational Planet (University of Minnesota Press, forthcoming).
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  • Elaine Gan
  • Oliver Gantner
  • Beate Geissler and Oliver Sann
  • Florian Goldmann
    • Florian Goldmann is a Berlin-based artist and a PhD candidate at the DFG Research Training Center Visibility and Visualisation – Hybrid Forms of Pictorial Knowledge as well as at the Brandenburg Center for Media Studies, both Potsdam University. His research focus is the utilization of models as a means of both commemorating and predicting catastrophe. In 2015, he took part in the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) in Sendai, Japan. Goldmann is one of the founders of the research collective STRATAGRIDS and the author of Flexible Signposts to Coded Territories (2012), an analysis of football hooligan graffiti in Athens as a system of fluid signage.
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  • Mark Graham
  • Jacques Grinevald
  • Johan Gärdebo
    • Johan Gärdebo is a PhD candidate at the Royal Institute of Technology affiliated to the Environmental Humanities Laboratory (EHL). H
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  • Orit Halpern
    • Orit Halpern is a Strategic Hire in Interactive Design and an associate professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Concordia University, Montreal. Her work bridges the histories of science, computing, and cybernetics with design and art practice. She is also a co-director of the Speculative Life Research Cluster, Montreal, a laboratory situated at the intersection of art and life sciences, architecture and design, and computational media (www.speculativelife.com). Her recent monograph, Beautiful Data (2015), is a history of interactivity, data visualization, and ubiquitous computing. www.orithalpern.net
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  • Eva Hayward
  • Gabrielle Hecht
  • Gerda Heck
  • Florian Hecker
    • dio 3 as the broadcaster’s first ever live binaural broadcast. Recent major exhibitions
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  • Carola Hein
    • Carola Hein is a professor of the history of architecture and urban planning in the Architecture Department at Delft University of Technology. She has published widely on topics in contemporary and historical architectural and urban planning, notably that of Europe and Japan. Her current research interests include transmission of architectural and urban ideas along international networks, focusing specifically on port cities, and the global architecture of oil. Her books include Port Cities: Dynamic Landscapes and Global Networks (2011), Cities, Autonomy, and Decentralization in Japan (2006), and The Capital of Europe: Architecture and Urban Planning for the European Union (2004).
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  • Julian Henriques
    • Julian Henriques is the convener of the MA in Script Writing and Director of the Topology Research Unit in the Department of Media and Communications at Goldsmiths, University of London. Prior to this, he ran the film and television department at the Caribbean Institute of Media and Communication (CARIMAC) at the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. His credits as a writer and director include the reggae musical feature film Babymother (1998) and as a sound artist, Knots & Donuts, exhibited at Tate Modern in 2011. Henriques researches street cultures and technologies and his publications include Changing the Subject: Psychology, Social Regulation, and Subjectivity (1998), Sonic Bodies: Reggae Sound Systems, Performance Techniques, and Ways of Knowing (2011), and Sonic Media (forthcoming).
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  • Hanna Husberg
    • Hanna Husberg is a Stockholm-based artist. She graduated from ENSB-A in Paris in 2007 and is currently a PhD in Practice candidate at the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna.
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  • Sabine Höhler
  • Erich Hörl
  • Timothy Johnson
  • Peter K. Haff
  • Bernd Kasparek
  • Nikos Katsikis
  • Laleh Khalili
  • Axel Kleidon
  • Alexander Klose
    • Dr. Alexander Klose studied History, Law, Philosophy, Art, and Cultural Studies. From 2005-07 he held a scholarship at Bauhaus Universität Weimar for his PhD project on standardized containers used in transport as one of the leading material media in the 20th century. Between 2009 and 2014 he worked as a research associate and programme developer at Kulturstiftung des Bundes. In 2015 in the forefront of COP 21, he co-curated Blackmarket for Useful Knowledge and Non-Knowledge No. 18 – On Becoming Earthlings: 150 dialogues and exercises in shrinking and expanding the Human at Musée de l'Homme, Paris. His latest publication is: The Container Principle. How a box changes the way we think (2015).
    • published contributions
  • Karin Knorr Cetina
  • Scott Knowles
  • Nile Koetting
  • Nicole Koltick
    • Nicole Koltick is an assistant professor in the Westphal College of Media Arts & Design at Drexel University, Philadelphia. She is Founding Director of the Design Futures Lab at Westphal College, which is currently pursuing design research to stimulate debate on the potential implications of emerging technological and scientific developments within society. Koltick’s practice spans art, science, technology, design, and philosophy, and current work focuses on the philosophical, material, and relational implications of aesthetics as they intersect with emerging developments in computational creativity, artificially intelligent autonomous systems, robotics, and synthetic biological hybrids.
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  • Nik Kosmas
  • Matthijs Kouw
    • Matthijs Kouw joined the Rathenau Instituut, The Hague, in March 2016. He holds an MA in Philosophy and an MSc in Science and Technology Studies from the University of Amsterdam as well as a PhD from Maastricht University. In his PhD thesis, Kouw describes how and to what extent reliance on models can introduce vulnerabilities through the assumptions, uncertainties, and blind spots concomitant with modeling practice. He was employed as a postdoctoral researcher at the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), during which time he acted as a member of the Dutch delegation for plenary sessions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
    • published contributions
  • Matija Kralj
  • Kei Kreutler
  • Lars Kulik
    • Lars Kulik studied biology at the Humboldt University of Berlin. He received his doctorate on the development of social behavior of rhesus monkeys at the University of Leipzig and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. He lives with his family in Berlin.
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  • Richard L. Hindle
    • Richard L. Hindle is an assistant professor of landscape architecture and environmental planning at the University of California, Berkeley. His current research focuses on patent innovation in landscape related technologies, from large-scale mappings of riverine and coastal systems to detailed historical studies on the antecedents of vegetated architecture. His work explores the potential of new technological narratives and material processes to reframe theory, practice, and the production of landscape. Recent works include the articles “Levees That Might Have Been” (2015), and “Infrastructures of Innovation” in Scaling Infrastructure (MIT Center for Advanced Urbanism, 2016), and the exhibition Geographies of Innovation at UC Berkeley (2015).
    • published contributions
  • Hannah Landecker
  • Brian Larkin
  • Bruno Latour
  • Manfred Laubichler
  • John Law
    • hn Law was a professor of sociology at Keele University, Lancaster, and the Open University, Milton Keynes, and a co-director of the Economic and Social Researc
    • published contributions
  • Yoneda Lemma
    • ents from one fiction to another. She has exhibited her work at V4ULT, Berlin; Le Cube, Par
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  • Esther Leslie
    • t theories of aesthetics and culture, with a particular focus on the work of Walter Benjamin and Theodor Adorno. It deals with the poetics of science, European literary and visual modern
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  • George Lewis
    • my of Arts and Letters, New York. He has been a member of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM), Chicago, since 1971. Lewis’s work as composer, electronic performer, installa
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  • S. Løchlann Jain
  • Donald MacKenzie
  • Stefan Maier
  • Chowra Makaremi
  • Annapurna Mamidipudi
  • Laura McLean
    • Laura McLean is a curator, artist, and writer based in London. She is a graduate of Goldsmiths College and Sydney College of the Arts, where she later lectured. She has also studied at Alberta College of Art and Design, and the Universität der Künste Berlin.
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  • Eden Medina
    • Eden Medina is an associate professor of informatics and computing, affiliated associate professor of law, and adjunct associate professor of history at Indiana University, Bloomington. Her research and teaching address the social, historical, and legal dimensions of our increasingly data-driven world, including the relationship of technology to human rights and free expression, the relationship between political innovation and technological innovation, and the ways that human and political values shape technological design. Medina’s writings also use science and technology as a way to broaden understandings of Latin American history and the geography of innovation. She is the author of Cybernetic Revolutionaries: Technology and Politics in Allende's Chile (2011) and the co-editor of Beyond Imported Magic: Essays on Science, Technology, and Society in Latin America (2014).
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  • Anne-Sophie Milon
    • Anne-Sophie Milon is an artist and a freelance illustrator and animator working and living in Bristol, UK. After completing two Masters in Art, she has recently concluded the program of experimentation in Art and Politics at SciencesPo (SPEAP) in Paris.
    • published contributions
  • Paul N. Edwards
  • Gerald Nestler
    • Gerald Nestler is an artist and writer who combines theory and post-disciplinary conversation with video, installation, performance, text, code, graphics, sound, and speech. He explores what he calls the derivative condition of contemporary social relations and its paradigmatic financial models, operations, processes, narratives, and fictions. He is currently working on an “aesthetics of resolution” that maps counterfictions and counterimaginations for “renegade activism,” which revolves around the demonstration as a combined artistic, technological, social, and political practice. Nestler holds a practice-based PhD from the Centre for Research Architecture at Goldsmiths, University of London.
    • published contributions
  • Huiying Ng
  • Daniel Niles
    • terial, millenary and momentary—that their knowledge takes, and, finally, the significance of this experience to our understanding of t
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  • James P. M. Syvitski
    • James P. M. Syvitski is Executive Director of the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) at the University of Colorado Boulder. From 2011 to 2016, he chaired the International Council for Science’s International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), which provides essential scientific leadership and knowledge of the Earth system to help guide society toward a sustainable pathway during rapid global change. His specialty is the global flux of water and sediment (river and ocean borne) and its trends in the Anthropocene. He works at the forefront of computational geosciences, including sediment transport, land-ocean interactions, and Earth-surface dynamics.
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  • Luciana Parisi
    • Luciana Parisi is Reader in Cultural Theory, Chair of the PhD program in Cultural Studies, and Co-director of the Digital Culture Unit at Goldsmiths, University of London. Her research focuses on cybernetics, information theory and computation, complexity and evolutionary theories, and the technocapitalist investment in artificial intelligence, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. Her books include Abstract Sex: Philosophy, Biotechnology and the Mutations of Desire (2004) and Contagious Architecture: Computation, Aesthetics, and Space (2013). She is currently researching the history of automation and the philosophical consequences of logical thinking in machines.
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  • Lisa Parks
  • Matteo Pasquinelli
  • Karen Pinkus
    • w York. She is also a faculty fellow of the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future, Ithaca. Author of numerous publications in literary studies, Italian studies, critical theory, and environmental humanities, Pinkus is also Editor of the journal Diacritics. In her latest book, Fuel (2016), Pinkus thinks about issues crucial to climate ch
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  • Giulia Rispoli
  • Sophia Roosth
    • t when researchers are building new biological systems in order to investigate how biology works. She holds a PhD from the Massachuse
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  • Arno Rosemarin
  • Rafico Ruiz
    • afico Ruiz is Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Banting Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Sociology at the University of Alberta, Edmonton. He studies the relationships between mediation and social space, particularly in the Arctic and subarctic; the cultural geographies of natural resource engagements; and
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  • Kim Rygiel
    • f International Affairs in Waterloo, Canada. Her research focuses on border security, migration, and citizenship in North America and Europe. She investigates how citizens and non-citizens engage in citizenship practices and challenge notions
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  • Dorion Sagan
  • Isabelle Saint-Saëns
  • Birgit Schneider
  • Sever
    • SEVER was developed as a speculative design project by Francesco Sebregondi, Alexey Platonov, Inna Pokazanyeva, and Ildar Iakubov during the New Normal postgraduate program at Strelka Institute for Media, Architecture and Design, Moscow. SEVER seeks to intervene into current Arctic debates by disturbing the landscape of the region’s possible futures
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  • Jens Soentgen
  • C Spencer Yeh
  • Nick Srnicek
  • Lizzie Stark
    • Lizzie Stark is an author, journalist, and experience designer. She is the author of two books, Pandora’s DNA (2014), exploring so-called ‘breast cancer genes’ and her first book, Leaving Mundania (2012), which investigates the subculture of live action role play, or larp. Her journalism and essays have appeared in The Washington Post, the Daily Beast, The Today Show Website, io9, Fusion, the Philadelphia Inquirer and elsewhere. She holds an MS from the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. She has organized numerous conventions and experiences across the US. Her most recent work is as a programming coordinator for Living Games Austin, and as co-editor and contributor for the #Feminism anthology, which collects 34 nano-games written by feminists from eleven countries.
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  • Carolyn Steel
  • Benjamin Steininger
  • Lucy Suchman
    • ology of Science and Technology in the Department of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, UK. Her research interests within the field of feminist science and technology studies are focused on technological imaginaries and material practices
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  • Kaushik Sunder Rajan
    • echnology studies, and postcolonial studies, holding a special interest in the global political economy of biomedicine, with a comparative focus on the Un
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  • Jenna Sutela
    • Jenna Sutela’s installations, texts, and sound performances seek to identify and react to precarious social and material moments, often in relation to technology. Most recently, she has been exploring exceedingly complex biological and computational systems, ultimately unknowable and always becoming something new. Her work has been presented, among other places, at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London; Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin; and the Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo and her writing has been published by Fiktion, Harvard Design Magazine, and Sternberg Press.
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  • Bronislaw Szerszynski
    • Bronislaw Szerszynski is a Reader in Sociology at Lancaster University in the UK. Szerszynski’s work has developed across several themes, including the role of Western religious history in shaping contemporary understandings of technology and the environment—typified by his book Nature, Technology and the Sacred (Wiley-Blackwell, 2005).
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  • Elisa T. Bertuzzo
    • Elisa T. Bertuzzo studied comparative literature, sociology, communication, and media studies and holds a PhD in urban studies. She was a curator and project leader with Habitat Forum Berlin, including for the project Paradigmising Karail Basti (2010–16). Bridging discourses from the fields of cultural and urban studies, her research focuses on the everyday life facets of urbanization and settlement in South Asia. On that topic, she published Fragmented Dhaka: Analysing Everyday Life with Henri Lefebvre’s Theory of Production of Space (2009) and runs her multimedia project Archives of Movement (since 2012), which deals with the everyday life of temporary labor migrants in Bangladesh and India.
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  • Gregory T. Cushman
    • Gregory T. Cushman is Associate Professor of International Environmental History at the University of Kansas.
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  • Nasrin Tabatabai
    • Nasrin Tabatabai is an artist who works both in Iran and the Netherlands. Since 2004, she has collaborated with Babak Afrassiabi on various joint projects and the publication of the bilingual magazine Pages (Farsi and English). Their work seeks to articulate the undecidable space between art and its historical conditions, including the recurring question of the place of the archive in defining the juncture between politics, history, and the practice of art. The artists’ work has been presented internationally in various solo and group exhibitions and they have been tutors at the Jan Van Eyck Academie, Maastricht (2008–13), and Erg, école supérieure des arts, Brussels (2015–).
    • published contributions
  • Ksenia Tatarchenko
    • dies Institute, Geneva University, specializing in the history of Russian science and technology. She has held positions as a visiting Assistant Professor of History at NYU Shanghai and a post-doctoral fellow at the Harriman Institute, Columbia. Most broadly, she studies questions of knowledge circulation to situate Soviet developments in the global context. She is currently writing a book on science and innovation cultures in Siberia provisionally
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  • Katerina Teaiwa
    • Dr. Katerina Teaiwa is Associate Professor at the Department of Gender, Media and Cultural Studies, School of Culture, History & Language and the president of the Australian Association for Pacific Studies. Her main area of research looks at the histories of phosphate mining in the central Pacific. Her work does not only span academic research, publications, and lectures, but also manifests itself in other formats within the arts and popular culture. Her work has inspired a permanent exhibition at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, which tells the story of Pacific phosphate mining through Banaban dance. In 2015, she published „Consuming Ocean Island: Stories of People and Phosphate from Banaba“, Indiana University Press. She is currently working with visual artist Yuki Kihara on a multimedia exhibition for Carriageworks in Sydney.
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  • Terre Thaemlitz
  • Jol Thomson
  • Claire Tolan
  • John Tresch
  • Etienne Turpin
    • Etienne Turpin is a philosopher, Founding Director of anexact office, and a research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, where he coordinates the Humanitarian Infrastructures Group and co-directs the PetaBencana.id disaster mapping project for the Urban Risk Lab. He is the editor of Architecture in the Anthropocene: Encounters Among Design, Deep Tim
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  • Asonseh Ukah
    • Asonzeh Ukah is a sociologist and historian of religion. He joined the University of Cape Town in 2013 and previously taught at the University of Bayreuth (2005–13), where he also earned a doctorate and habilitation in history of religions. His research interests include religious urbanism, the sociology of Pentecostalism, and religion and media. He is Director of the Research Institute on Christianity and Society in Africa (RICSA), University of Cape Town, and Affiliated Senior Fellow of Bayreuth International Graduate School of African Studies (BIGSAS), University of Bayreuth. He is the author of A New Paradigm of Pentecostal Power (2008) and Bourdieu in Africa (edited with Magnus Echtler, 2016).
    • published contributions
  • Underworlds
  • Sebastian Vehlken
    • Sebastian Vehlken is a media theorist and cultural historian at Leuphana University Lüneburg and Permanent Senior Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study on Media Cultures of Computer Simulation (MECS). From 2013 to 2017, he worked as MECS Junior Director, and in 2015–16, he was a visiting professor at Humboldt-Universität Berlin, the University of Vienna, and Leuphana. His areas of interest include the theory and history of computer simulation and digital media, the media history of swarm intelligence, and the epistemology of think tanks. His current research project, Plutonium Worlds, explores the application of computer simulations in West German fast breeder reactor programs.
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  • Vladimir Vernadsky
  • Ben Vida
    • Korea, Australia ,and Europe at such institutions as the Guggenheim, New York; Centro Pecci, Prato, Italy; STUK Arts Center, Leuven
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  • Davor Vidas
    • Davor Vidas is a research professor in international law and Director of the Law of the Sea Programme at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway. He is Chair of the Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise and a member of the Anthropocene Working Group. Vidas has been involved in international law research for over thirty years, focusing since 2009 on implications of the Anthropocene for the development of international law. Among his books are The World Ocean in Globalisation (2011) and Law, Technology and Science for Oceans in Globalisation (2010). He is the editor-in-chief of the book series Anthropocene (Skolska knjiga, Zagreb), launched in 2017.
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  • Kalindi Vora
  • Jennifer Walshe
    • porary Arts, New York; DAAD Berliner Künstle
    • published contributions
  • Hannes Wiedemann
    • Hannes Wiedemann is a Berlin-based photographer. He studied at the Ostkreuz School of Photography, Berlin. For his project Grinders (2015–16), he followed the American bodyhacking community, a small group of people across the United States working out of garages and basements to become real cyborgs. Recent exhibitions include NEW PHOTOGRAPHY II (2017) at Gallery ALAN, Istanbul, and HUMAN UPGRADE, with Susanna Hertrich (2016), at Schader-Stiftung Gallery, Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt. www.hanneswiedemann.com
    • published contributions
  • Elvia Wilk
  • Cary Wolfe
    • Cary Wolfe is Bruce and Elizabeth Dunlevie Professor of English and Founding Director of 3CT: Center for Critical and Cultural Theory at Rice University, Houston. He is the author of What Is Posthumanism? (2010), a book that weaves together principal concerns of his work: animal studies, system theory, pragmatism, and post-structuralism. It is part of the series Posthumanities, for which he serves as Founding Editor at the University of Minnesota Press. His most recent publication is Before the Law: Humans and Other Animals in Biopolitical Frame (2013) and earlier books and edited collections include Animal Rites: American Culture, The Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory (2003) and Zoontologies: The Question of the Animal (2003).
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  • Andrew Yang
  • Jan Zalasiewicz
    • Dr. Jan Zalasiewicz is Professor of Palaeobiology at the University of Leicester and Chair of the Anthropocene Working Group of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. A field geologist, paleontologist, and stratigrapher, he teaches and publishes on geology and earth history, in particular on fossil ecosystems and environments that span over half a billion years of geological time.
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  • Anna Zett
  • Sander van der Leeuw
    • ionships, and complex systems theory. He investigates the preconditions for and the practices and role of invention, sustainability, and innovation in societies. He has done
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  • Liv Østmo
    • Liv Østmo is one of the founders and current Dean of the Sámi University of Applied Sciences, Kautokeino, Norway, where she researches and lectures on the subject of multicultural understanding. For the last eight years, Østmo has worked with traditional Sámi knowledge and she is currently working on putting the finishing touches on a methodology book about the documentation of this knowledge.
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5. Deserts. The Geopolitics of Geology

Monopolies of raw materials are as much political and historical as they are based on “natural” resources. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the growing dependency of national food supplies on fertilizer has turned phosphorus into a critical resource within geopolitical conflicts. Lino Camprubí tells the (post-)colonial and geopolitical history of the Western Sahara—the last African colony that still exists to this day—and gives historic insight into why Morocco holds approximately seventy-five percent of the world’s usable phosphate. Timothy Johnson’s article highlights how World War I exposed the vulnerability of a fertilizer-based agricultural system, but also helped install mineral-fueled agriculture.

The Last African Colony and Moroccan Phosphate Mining
Western Sahara rarely makes it into the news. In 2011 Saharawi riots at the Tindouf refugee camp in Algeria led human rights organizations to once again raise up the issue in the UN. When in 1975 Morocco seized Western Sahara from Spain, its former colonial ruler, most of the native nomadic population was expelled and has been confined in that southwestern corner of Algeria for generations. While about two hundred thousand Moroccan citizens have settled in the territory since then, more than one hundred thousand Saharawi are in exile.
As it had done since its creation in 1991, in 2011 the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINRUSO) attempted to draft a resolution condemning the repression and urging for the celebration of the Referendum of self-determination that Morocco agreed upon twenty-five years ago. As usual, a number of countries blocked any attempt in that direction and avoided any talk of sanctions. The ambiguity between international law and the de facto situation is visible in how different maps, even within the Google emporium, depict the border alternatively with a continues or a dotted line. The UN recognizes Western Sahara as the last African colony, but most of the countries that constitute the UN are happy keeping it that way. Phosphate is the reason why.
According to most estimates, Morocco holds no less than seventy-five percent of the world’s usable phosphate. The enormity of the figure becomes alarming when we imaginarily apply it to other key resources, such as oil or water. If Saudi Arabia held seventy-five percent of the world oil we would have probably moved on to alternative fuels long ago! As the Phosphorus Apparatus dossier makes clear, phosphate is not any less vital than oil for today’s world population. As such, Morocco’s absolute preponderance poses enormous geopolitical challenges of which the anomaly of Western Sahara is a tragic symptom.
This article approaches the geopolitics of Moroccan phosphate mining historically. By looking at Morocco’s seizure of Western Saharan mines, it argues that monopolies of raw materials are as much political as they are natural. In this case, geopolitics and violence were at the roots of each of the three stages of fertilizer production: finding rich veins, extracting and moving phosphate rock, and manufacturing it into sellable enrichers.
Phosphate Mining Morocco, picture by Oliver Gantner

Finding and counting – the geopolitics of geophysics

The two world wars marked the beginning of the end of the colonial era, with the definitive decease of empires such as the Ottoman, the Austro-Hungarian, the Japanese, the Italian and the German and the severe weakening of others, particularly the British and the French. But this was far from an abrupt end, and French colonial rule would still configure North African political economy for years to come. Phosphate production functioned under this scheme, with the largest producers of raw phosphate sending the rock for manufacturing in France. The next section will examine the decomposition of this colonial division of labor. For now, I want to stress that it granted the French a virtual monopoly over the production of fertilizers in Europe.
This was bad news for France’s political rivals, as was the case with the dictatorial regime established by General Franco after the Spanish Civil War. With World War II over, France refused to sell phosphoric acid to a state that had been friendly towards the Axis. Spanish officials turned to Spain’s own colonies, in particular to Western Sahara. Hoping to find there the resources that lack of currency and political isolation prevented Spaniards to buy elsewhere, the Colonial Administration funded more than twenty geological expeditions to Western Sahara from 1941 to 1955.
Water works at the region of Lemillas, ca. 1945, Instituto Geológico y Minero Español, Madrid, exp. 2820.

While working on his dissertation as part of one of those expeditions, geologist Manuel Alía Medina found phosphate-bearing minerals that reminded him of the rich Algerian rocks. After a meeting with Franco in 1947, it was decided to launch a state company that would prospect and eventually mine and sell Western Saharan phosphates. At the time, geologists thought that phosphate deposits resulted from marine sediments left in land depressions during flood periods. This (wrong) assumption led prospectors towards the coast, and after years of disappointments the campaign was cancelled in 1957.
However, two other minerals offered more promising prospects: uranium and oil. Efforts to obtain them incorporated geophysics to geology, with the production of detailed geological maps that included data on radiation and electrical loggings. Importantly, this was the result of a transnational effort, because in 1958 the Colonial Administration invited over twenty companies from across the world to look for oil in the region. They too were disappointed and soon abandoned the area, living behind not only the end of the nomadic life in places like Aaiun, the new capital, but also a wealth of knowledge, tools and apparatuses.
ENMINSA engineers Ríos and Muñoz with Franco’s right-hand man, Luis Carrero Blanco, ca. 1962. Instituto Geológico y Minero Español, Madrid, exp. 2826.

In 1962, after ruling out the possibility for profitably extracting uranium and oil, the Spanish government decided to resume the quest for phosphates with the creation of a new state company, ENMINSA. Spain had slowly been integrated into the Western Block defined by Cold War geopolitics, and France now shipped thousands of tons of fertilizers to foster the country’s rich agriculture. But the recent decolonization of Morocco, Algeria and Mauritania put increasing pressure on the Spanish government to conduct a self-determination referendum in the Western Sahara. Economic development was seen as the only possibility for keeping future voters loyal.
New knowledge of phosphate genesis was also reassuring. Most theories pointed toward explanations of sedimentary phosphate that combined deep marine concentrations in cold conditions with their rise by convection toward shallow coastal waters during prolonged geological periods. And the new geological maps of the area showed an ancient Paleozoic coast moving Eastward. Pairing with one of the companies which had prospected for oil in the area with the help of radioactive and electric lodgers, the Institute Français du Petrole (IFP), ENMINSA technicians followed two layers of dark flint along this ancient coast. They corresponded to those where Alía had first found phosphate twenty years earlier. In June 1963 they dig a well in the Bu-Craa region and struck on a superficial vein of surprisingly high quality.
After further prospects and complicated statistical calculations, ENMINSA reported to have found one of the richest deposits in the world, with 1,600 million tons of phosphates of sixty-eight percent average quality with veins of eighty percent purity, well above that of most mines. With that, a new geopolitical game started.
Detecting radiation from above. D. Boyd, “Informe investigación Hunting Geophysics LTD en Sáhara español”, 1959. Instituto Geológico y Minero Español, Madrid, exp. 2820. 4103.

Extracting and moving – postcolonial markets

The Bucraa discovery came at a time of rapid expansion of the phosphate world market. An oil-fueled Golden Age of capitalism, a Cold War-fueled Green Revolution and the expansion of economies like the Soviet, the Chinese and the Brazilian, boosted demand for fertilizers. The Spanish government saw a unique opportunity to get a share of the wealth. This posed challenges and opportunities to government officials and CEOs from the various countries involved. Decolonization opened the way to various competing possibilities to reorganize the phosphate economy and Bucraa was the place to start.
Morocco had gained independence from France in 1956 and Algeria followed in 1962. French officials complained that the phosphate market was “ruled by anarchy”, by which they meant that they had lost its control. The division of labor between North African producers or raw phosphate and European manufacturers of fertilizers continued to be in place, but now mining nations could bargain to see which buyer offered the best deal. In particular, Morocco still sold its phosphate to France, but it did so in its own terms and was opened to speak to other manufacturers. For instance, it closed a deal with the American company Occidental Petroleum to install a refining plant in Moroccan soil, which would allow Morocco to jump over French producers.
In this context, the Bucraa discovery was perceived by the French as an opportunity to reduce Morocco’s weight in the industry, but one that would only be of use for French interests if the French officials could be in charge of some kind of new international arrangement that did not convince anyone else. For Morocco, the new mine meant an unacceptable competitor just to the south, except if it could somehow get hold of its reserves. The Monarchy launched a campaign to establish Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara, what was called Grand Morocco. It also failed to convince other countries, leading to a short war between Algeria and Morocco. For US companies, Bucraa was an opportunity to enter the European market. Phosphate rock was heavy and thus subject to regional “natural markets.” Bucraa was for them a unique occasion to manufacture a truly global market.
Lastly, Spain needed to play its cards carefully. The UN had recently listed Western Sahara as a territory awaiting self-determination. Spain thus became an administrative power in charge of conducting a referendum. The government’s strategy was to buy time until phosphates could be solved and some of the revenue reinvested to ensure a loyal native population. ENMINSA officials were charged with finding a partner to enter the global market and advised that: “the issue of independence will soon be pressing... The future of the territory depends to a great extent on what you will be able to achieve.”
“Pueblo” for ENMINSA's Saharaui workers at the Bu-Craa mine. Fosfatos del Bu-Cráa S. A.Memoria y balance del ejercicio 1971, Madrid, SEPI, Archivo Histórico del INI, Fosbucraa, 1972.

Intense negotiations followed from 1965 to the early 1970s. have discussed them with greater detail in Resource Geopolitics (Technology and Culture). Here, it suffices to say that political economy, sovereignty, war, technologies of extraction and transportation, and estimates of world reserves were all discussed with equal boldness. Just when ENMINSA and the Florida-based International Mineral and Chemicals (IMC) were about to close a deal, Morocco lowered prices for its exports, which made IMC reconsider its offer. Extended negotiations meant the delay of the construction of the installations, and thus of production, which undermined the Spanish strategy. ENMINSA chief executive considered this a form of sabotage useful to keep prices up.
Sabotage and artificial scarcity became key in the years to come. Selling and manufacturing – Sabotage and artificial scarcity. By threatening with a price war and by increasing diplomatic and military pressure over the Western Sahara, Morocco made it clear that it would not accept competition from Bucraa phosphate. The president of the Office Chérifien des Phosphates, the national company in charge of mining and selling the rock, explained to diplomats in Spain and the US that “many in Morocco consider phosphate to be our oil. Undoubtedly, this connects phosphate to the issue of Western Sahara.” In view of this determination and of Moroccan leverage over the world phosphate markets, Spanish officials decided to negotiate.
In 1972 the two countries reached a secret agreement to avoid competing for the same markets and to fix minimum prices. This allowed Spain to sell its first shipment to Japan later in the year. Phosphates extracted at Bu-Craa travelled one hundred kilometers through a conveyor belt until a new port built in El Aiun, where it was charged into containers and loaded into cargo ships. The conveyor belt thus became a mandatory point of passage for the political economy of Sahara phosphate.
As Timothy Mitchell and others have argued, chokepoints allow for new political players to instantiate their claims to participation. In October 1974, the Polisario, a group funded just the year before by pro-independence Saharawi, burned down fourteen kilometers of the conveyor belt. The Polisario, many of whose members worked at the mines and other facilities geared towards extracting phosphate, was able to disrupt the movement of the rock onto the world markets. Soon after, the Spanish government announced that it would conduct the referendum in 1975.

Fearing a negative result, the Moroccan king decided to prevent such referendum. In the US, President Ford and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger worried about Algeria’s close ties to the Soviet Union and sought to avoid instability in Morocco as well as a Soviet-friendly Western Sahara that would give the enemy a direct entry point into the Atlantic. “If he [the king] doesn’t get it [the Sahara] he is finished; we should now work to ensure he gets it.” In Spain, dictator Franco was dying and a conflict with Morocco would have brought unwanted instability. On November 14, both countries reached a convenient agreement: Morocco would have the Western Sahara and Spain would retain thirty-five percent of phosphates.
And thus did the Western Sahara become the last African colony. Its population was bombed with Napalm and expelled to Algerian camps. A twenty-five-year long war between an Algeria-supported Polisario and a US-funded Morocco continued. Phosphates were at the center of it, with the conveyor belt suffering multiple attacks and with Morocco securing the mine and the port through walls of sand and barbed wire.
While production halted for years, Morocco had long annihilated the spectrum of a southern competitor. The goal was not always to produce as much as possible, but rather to do so at the highest price imaginable. Since the truce between Morocco and the Polisario was signed in 1991, Morocco decides how much the world pays for fertilizers.
The 100 km conveyor belt Bu-Craa - El Aiun, Fosfatos del Bu-Cráa S. A.Memoria y balance del ejercicio 1971, Madrid, SEPI, Archivo Histórico del INI, Fosbucraa, 1972.

Phosphate futures – what do we do next?

In early 2016 the NASA produced some astonishing images showing how phosphorus-rich dust from the Sahara desert feeds the Amazonic rain forest after crossing the Atlantic in suspension. Pictures like this one convey ideas of connectedness and equilibrium at a global scale. The problem arises if these ideas are extrapolated to the all-too human world of production and consumption. The phosphorus apparatus is anything but smooth. Also, unlike the technical systems that we usually call apparatus, it lacks any central organization or design.
In descending into the historical details of finding, moving and selling phosphorus, we are confronted with secrecy, violence, sabotage, scarcity and exodus. At the same time, putting phosphorus at the center of developments otherwise traversed by Cold War and decolonization geopolitics, we gain new understandings of the entanglement between the deep time of fossil formation and the accelerated pace of world population and depletion. Political boundaries and discontinuities prove themselves as relevant as flows and mobility.
It is useful to bear this in mind when thinking about what to do next. Asking “what can we do to reform the phosphorus apparatus?” is already begging the question of who is the political subject of the action. Who is the “we”? In imagining phosphorus-sustainable futures, the temptation of glossing over the central problem of the political continuities and discontinuities encapsulated in this pronoun could become strong enough to risk the entire project.
For greater detail and references, the author wishes to refer readers to his "Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizer, and the Fate of Western Sahara," Technology and Culture, 57, 3 (2015): 676-703.

Towards a Global Law of the Minimum: War and the Geopolitics of N-P-K Sourcing
When war rattled the world in 1914, fertilizer flows were crucial to the nutritional circuitry of the empires of the North Atlantic. In the decades since 1840 when the chemist Justus Von Liebig identified the three nutrients essential to plant growth, commercial networks spanning the globe emerged to supply farms with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
These flows of fertilizer minerals helped nations like Germany, Britain, and the United States create highly productive crop cultures. The outbreak of the war, however, revealed that the stunning productivity of the new fertilizer regime was vulnerable to the vagaries of geopolitics. The exigencies of a global industrial conflict only multiplied these vulnerabilities, as naval blockades interrupted the regular circulation of minerals, and military demands cut into fertilizer supplies for ordnance production.
World War I was, as Timothy Mitchell has suggested, the first carbon-fueled conflict. Fossil fuels allowed the empires of the North Atlantic escalate the scale and magnitude of warfare. Yet because these same nations also depended on mineral fertilizers to produce food and fiber, war was also the first great conflict in the mineral fertilizer regime. And while the belligerent nations entered the war with a fairly clear sense of the carbon resources needed to power their war machines, the mineral basis of their nutritional demands posed complex and unprecedented logistical challenges.
The global fertilizer map was beset with asymmetries. Even if a nation was endowed with an abundant supply of one of the three main fertilizer nutrients, usually at least one or the other two came from far afield. Germany had advanced nitrogen synthesis and a virtual monopoly on potassium, but it lacked significant domestic sources of phosphorous. Britain and the United States had access to phosphates but relied heavily on Chilean nitrate and German potash. In a sense, policymakers had to reckon with the brutal calculus of Liebig’s law of the minimum on a global scale. Warring nations struggled to protect existing supply chains and to seek other, domestic resources in pursuit of nutritional autarky.
Liebig’s law provides a framework to explore how states grappled with the uncertainties of global nutrient flows in the early twentieth century. The United States provides a case study to examine how concerns about securing N-P-K supply chains influenced the actions of a rapidly expanding state. While the United States was less dependent on mineral fertilizers than Germany, for example, its struggle to achieve fertilizer sovereignty during the war shows how the experience of war elevated the law of the minimum from the rarified sphere of agricultural chemistry to the realm of geopolitics. It also reveals that these same matters of wartime urgency helped cement the centrality of industrial agriculture and to scuttle other time-tested approaches to maintaining agricultural production after the war.

Fertilizer in the United States Before World War I

For the United States, as well as European powers, the introduction of fertilizers was intimately bound up with imperial aspirations. For most of America’s history, agricultural production had been contingent upon an empire of space. Settlers practiced extensive agriculture and tapped native fertility of the soils of the continental expanse as the key source of plant nutrition. Although politicians operated under the assumption of an endless frontier to supply the growing nation with raw materials, local problems of soil exhaustion became especially acute along the Eastern Seaboard. Following the lead of northern European nations, eastern farmers became voracious consumers of Pacific guano fertilizer by the 1850s.
The market for these nitrogen and phosphorus rich materials inspired lawmakers to pass the Guano Islands Act in 1856 to provide a legal basis for Americans to claim territory for the purpose of commercial mineral extraction. The arid reefs and rookeries of the Pacific and the Caribbean became the first waypoints of America’s overseas empire. In the late 19th century, the market for commercial fertilizers was concentrated along the market garden districts of the East and especially in the Plantation Belt of the Southeast. There, high-value staple crops cultivated on poor soils led tenant farmers to become the shock troops of input-based agriculture. Initially many agricultural scientists dismissed these cotton and tobacco farmers as “backwards” because their approach to farming spurned the practice of agricultural husbandry, which relied upon manure and crop rotations to improve yields.
Under scrutiny, however, the recourse to fertilizers was an almost unavoidable adaptation to the political economy of the South—and one that has since been reproduced in plantation regions around the world. Lacking capital, land, implements, outbuildings, and sufficient livestock, fertilizer became a lifeline for southern agriculture. White landowners, often former slaveholders, became the commercial agents of this new nutrient trade by extending credit for the fertilizer at crippling interest rates to their tenants. In the process, the annual ritual of fertilizer application quickly transformed the southern Plantation Belt into a key site in an increasingly global circulation of mineral nutrients.
Unlike Britain and Germany, before the Great War, American politicians had given relatively little thought to how war would affect fertilizer supply lines. In his 1898 speech at the British Society, Sir William Crookes famously framed the problem of nitrogen fixation as a challenge to chemists, and as a potential technological pathway to nutritional independence for Britain—a nation almost wholly dependent on grain imports from overseas. In Germany, Fritz Haber discovered an efficient approach to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that could be used to manufacture fertilizer and explosives—a breakthrough that eventually ended Germany’s reliance on Chilean nitrates. Observing these events in Europe, in 1909 the American chemist Charles Munroe urged his own government to support research for nitrogen fixation as a bulwark against a wartime embargo on Chilean nitrates, which could hamstring weapons production as well as crop yields.
Yet Munroe’s call to action did not resonate in America the way that Crookes’s speech had in Europe. On the eve of the war, the United States remained an inwardly focused nation with an economy geared towards internal markets and built upon an unshakable faith in the nation’s territorial abundance. If the law of the minimum was already beginning to shape policy and investment in Europe, the U.S. had yet to come to grips with the urgency of resource scarcity.
Prior to the fighting, economic warfare with Germany over potash prices revealed that fertilizer minerals could pose a threat to national security. America absorbed more than half of Germany’s total potash output, but when the Imperial Government passed a 1910 law setting strict price controls, American fertilizer manufacturers sought federal interventions. In an unprecedented action, Congress commissioned the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Soils to send scientists into the field to scour the country for sources of potash and nitrates and to prepare for the threat of a fertilizer embargo. Beyond the quest for mineral resources, federal scientists also conducted a series of studies that measured the cost and efficacy of urban waste streams as fertilizer resources. This research pointed to a number of promising leads, but no simple solutions. More than anything, these studies underlined that the modern food supply chain was complex system based on interdependence, making the ideal of fertilizer independence elusive.

Diplomacy, Discovery, and Denial

The start of the war immediately upended the delicate international balance of power in fertilizer production. Due to blockades and because of their importance to arms production, the cost of raw fertilizer materials spiked in the United States long before it entered the conflict in 1917. As the U.S. and other nations faced the limiting effects of nutrient embargoes, they pursued three approaches to avoiding the law of the minimum that can be categorized as diplomacy, discovery, and denial.
Diplomacy was the first path America followed with Germany, in particular, since each nation was the largest consumer of the other’s primary mineral resource. The strongest advocates of diplomacy were American fertilizer manufacturers, who pressured the Wilson administration to keep lines of communication open with Germany. Cutting ties would mean that American phosphate companies would lose their most lucrative market and that American fertilizer manufacturers stood to lose their potash supply. Two obstacles prevented this exchange. First, beyond their agricultural applications, all of the main fertilizer minerals were crucial to weapons production, which could compromise America’s neutral position at the start of the war. Second, America’s entry with the allies closed the door to any exchange with Germany completely, while it did increase cooperation with Britain.
After the failure of diplomacy, the prospect of discovering new sources of fertilizer became paramount, and state experts pursued the dual paths of exploration and technical innovation. The search for domestic troves of potash led to a number of noteworthy projects, including the USDA’s failed program to extract potash from kelp beds along the California coast. Between 1916 and 1919 boats harvested hundreds of thousands of tons of kelp to derive a paltry amount of potassium at a high labor cost, to say nothing of its disastrous effect on the area’s marine ecology. The discovery of a scattering of potash deposits in the arid West tantalized fertilizer manufacturers but failed to deliver sufficient supplies.
The pursuit of new technologies to synthesize atmospheric nitrogen proved to be an even more costly and spectacular failed project in the short term, but one that had a long-term impact. The government-funded nitrogen fixation facilities in Muscle Shoals, Alabama were ineffective during the war, but they became an anchor of federal fertilizer experimentation and the starting point of the Tennessee Valley Authority during the interwar years. While these plants were not immediate successes, they planted the seeds of a longer commitment on the part of the federal government to the chemicalization of agricultural production in the United States. The final approach to escaping the privations of the international law of the minimum was that of denial.
As experts began to suggest that losing fertilizer might threaten the nation’s crops, many questioned the scientific underpinnings of agricultural chemistry itself. This approach gained currency after America entered the war and a wave of anti-German sentiment swept the public. Some agricultural chemists contended that America’s rate of potash application was too high and reasoned that a brief interruption of potash imports would not substantially hurt production.
Other less sober observers argued that the German potash cartel had invented the market for their products from whole cloth, and that the value of potassium to crop production was not based upon solid science, but rather part of a “vast Teutonic conspiracy” that made American farmers slaves of the German potash cartel. Still others pointed to the fact that Germany was the international center of chemistry, and that those agricultural scientists who had trained in German universities had been brainwashed by German thinking at best, and at worst, henchmen of the Kaiser. Luckily, with the end of the war anti-German sentiment abated and so too did its influence on the public perception of scientific thought. Denying the importance—and indeed, even the scientific basis—of plant nutrition was a short-lived experiment that did not outlast the duration of the war.
Ultimately, America’s fertilizer resources were substantial enough and its participation in the war was short enough that starvation was never a genuine threat as it had been for the nations of Europe. And while the three pathways of diplomacy, discovery, and denial each failed during the four years of war, the urgency and fear that drove personnel within the American state to escape the international law of the minimum had lasting impacts. Perhaps the most enduring effect of America’s attempt to bolster its fertilizer supply chains during the war was that it enshrined the primacy of input agriculture in the United States.
By elevating what had been the commercial activity of the fertilizer industry into an imperative of the state, the war marked a decisive turn towards an industrial aesthetic in American agriculture and in turn, squelching dissenting voices that questioned the new fertilizer regime.